panorama3On this page you’ll find answers to the most common questions about aviation and Malmi Airport.

  • Question 1: Who are the users of Malmi Airport?
  • Question 2: Is Malmi’s aviation just about hobbyists?
  • Question 3: Couldn’t Malmi’s operations be moved away from the capital region?
  • Question 4: Are there general aviation airports in the middle of the city elsewhere?
  • Question 5: Aren’t two airports that close to each other a safety risk?
  • Question 6: Is Malmi Airport valuable as a cultural heritage site?
  • Question 7: Isn’t aviation an extreme sport suitable only for supermen and -women?
  • Question 8: Shouldn’t Malmi Airport go because Helsinki needs building land for residential areas?
  • Question 9: Doesn’t Malmi Airport disturb the people living nearby?
  • Question 10: Are there any natural values requiring protection at Malmi Airport?
  • Question 11: Isn’t Malmi Airport a dead place where nothing ever happens?
  • Question 12: The traffic at Malmi Airport has diminished by half since 1990, so is there demand for it anymore?
  • Question 13: Aren’t the old aircraft of Malmi Airport a safety hazard to the people living nearby?
  • Question 14: Isn’t a new residential area on Malmi Airport crucial to the future and the services of the region?
  • Question 15: Isn’t Malmi Airport maintained with large sums of taxpayers’ money?
  • Question 16: Can the operations of Malmi Airport be developed at the present location?
  • Question 17: Won’t the services of Helsinki-Vantaa International Airport suffice for the capital region even in the future?
  • Question 18: Does Malmi Airport have any value as a backup airport or for maintenance and supply security?
  • Question 19: Can inexpensive housing be built at Malmi Airport?
  • Question 20: Isn’t there a ready-made infrastructure for housing at Malmi Airport?


Question 1: Who are the users of Malmi Airport?

Answer:At Malmi, aviation is within the grasp of any person in the capital region with an average income, and the large band of aviators at Malmi consists of perfectly ordinary people from all walks of life.

Talk about “rich people showing off” is absolutely untrue. Only few pilots own an aircraft themselves. The majority of Malmi’s more than 100 aircraft belong to clubs and aircraft rental companies, and each one of them has dozens of users.

While the expenses paid by professional pilot students for their education are high, a private pilot’s license or an ultralight pilot’s license obtained from courses arranged by aviation clubs will not ruin anyone’s economy. If you can afford e.g. motorcycling, you could just as well be flying.

An undeniable proof of this are the students of Aalto University, who in their aviation club train pilots and fly year-round, even though they can’t possibly be considered to make even an average income.

If you are not interested in powered flight, parachuting is even less expensive. There is no other place in the capital region where parachuting is possible. Model plane enthusiasts also enjoy flying their racers at Malmi Airport, and a huge crowd of people from the capital region simply likes to watch the propeller aircraft operating there. This doesn’t cost a penny, and the viewing platform and restaurant at Malmi offer a perfect place for it for the whole family. The aviation events organized at Malmi Airport regularly bring around tens of thousands of people.

Malmi Airport is the only place in the capital region where an ordinary citizen can get involved with aviation.

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Question 2: Is Malmi’s aviation just about hobbyists?

Answer: According to official studies, the hobbyists’ share of Malmi’s activities is 10-20%. As of late 2016, Malmi is an international airport, an official border-crossing point with passport control and Customs services, serving both domestic and international light air traffic. It is an air base of the Frontier Guard, and in addition to the search-and-rescue helicopters it has served also the Police traffic-monitoring helicopter and an ambulance helicopter.

Even in the scope of non-professional aviation, voluntary work is done for the public good, e.g. SAR flights as well as surveillance flights targeting illegal spills from ships in the Gulf of Finland as part of WWF Finland’s Baltic Sea campaign (Operation Flying Mermaid).

Above all, Malmi is the biggest aviation education center in the country. Training flights form a majority of all traffic at the Airport. In addition to the private pilots of the capital region, up to 2/3 of all professional pilots get their education there, then serving the aviation trade as airline pilots. Because of its great location, the Airport is such a crucial center of aviation education and recruiting that Finavia Ltd, tasked with taking care of Finnish aviation’s prerequisites and needs, has willingly taken care of its maintenance costs.

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Question 3: Couldn’t Malmi’s operations be moved away from the capital region?

Answer: Malmi Airport is the backbone and the lifeline of general aviation in the capital region simply because of its excellent location.

When the present effort to shut down Malmi Airport was initiated at the end of the 20th century, a “replacement” airfield in Sipoo right next to the capital was strongly hinted at. After that, the “replacement” airfield location has moved in sales pitches bit by bit further away, via Mäntsälä to Riihimäki to Kiikala 65 miles away, where it wouldn’t have anything to do with the general aviation needs of the capital region any more.

The thorough expert study “The location alternatives for the general aviation airfield of Helsinki region” (LVM 16/2011), published in 2011 by the Ministry of Transport and Communications as a basis for environmental impact assessment (EIA) ended up rejecting all 50 proposed locations as EIA alternatives, leaving only the EIA baseline scenario of continuing operations at Malmi. The latest twist (March 2014) is that the State no longer requires any replacement to Malmi at all: pilot training and hobby aviation are simply to be cast out to cope as they may on existing airfields elsewhere.

The so-called Piirainen’s expert group, appointed by the Ministry of Traffic and Communications, reported already in 2000 that the existing airfields are poor replacements for Malmi for various reasons. The firms operating on Malmi Airport have almost without exception declared that they have no economic future whatsoever on any airfield further away from the capital. Malmi’s pilot training also encompasses more than 30.000 powered flight operations annually, which would be an unbearable change in the living conditions of the population in the new locale. In decentralizing Malmi’s operations, the excellent synergy between various aviation-related sectors would also be lost.

The 4000-8000 annual hobby flight operations cannot fit on the uncontrolled small airfields in Uusimaa province in a way that fulfills the requirements of safety and the environment. The active glider bases of Nummela and Hyvinkää, which have been proposed to accommodate Malmi’s hobbyists, are situated next to a population center and have little powered flight activity. If the lively hobby activities of Malmi were  forced to move to Nummela and Hyvinkää, which even put together offer only a fraction of Malmi’s capacity, the risk of dangerous situations would be obvious. The soundscape of the local population would also change radically. The likely outcome of this would be shutting down both airfields after the next municipal elections.

A short distance to travel to the airport makes it possible for the aviation clubs to overhaul and maintain their aircraft to a large extent by voluntary work, without the need to buy these services from commercial entrepreneurs except in the case of the most demanding jobs. This in turn keeps the price of flying within the reach of an average aviator. The youths of the capital region also have a chance to get to enjoy aviation incentives by local bus or bike.

If the aviation operations of Malmi are moved away from the capital region, the price of flying and the time required to reach the airfield will increase to an unbearable level. Because of these new unreasonable requirements, no new hobbyists would be obtained from the capital region, and a whole branch of trade and human activity would wither away from the most densely populated region of the country.

For business aviation and taxi flights, the situation would be just as bizarre. The closest international airport serving traffic on free schedule is in Turku some 150 km away.  A taxi stand in Turku does not serve a customer in Helsinki in any way.

After relocating the activities of Malmi Airport, Helsinki would be one of the few European capitals without access by small aircraft on a free schedule. For the sake of comparison, it is worthwhile to note that in Stockholm, Sweden, the regional runway capacity was in 2003 seen as such a regional advantage that downsizing it was not considered affordable. In addition to Arlanda Airport, Stockholm is served by Bromma Airport in the middle of the city, comparable in size to Malmi, as well as several smaller airfields within a 25 km radius.

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Question 4: Are there general aviation airports in the middle of the city elsewhere?

Answer: Malmi Airport is not in the middle of Helsinki, but at the furthest limit northeast about 10 km from the city center. There are general aviation airfields much closer to notable cities in Europe and around the world. The table below shows examples of general aviation airfields serving light traffic in cities around the world and their distances from the city.

CityMain airport (km)General aviation airport (km)
AdelaideAdelaide 6Parafield 15
AmsterdamSchiphol 9Hilversum 24
AucklandAuckland 17Ardmore 27
BelfastAldergrove 21Belfast City 2
BerlinTegel 8Werneuchen 15
BonnKonrad Adenauer 20Hangelar 6
BrusselsBruxelles Nat. 7Grimbergen 12
BucharestOtopeni 17Banesa 9
CalgaryCalgary 8Springbank 22
DublinDublin 10Weston 12
DüsseldorfDüsseldorf 7Mönchengladbach 20
GöteborgLandvetter 20Göteborg City / Säve 9
HamburgHamburg 9Finkenwerder 10
HelsinkiVantaa 17Malmi 10
CopenhagenKastrup 6Roskilde 27
LondonHeathrow 22London City 11
LyonSt. Exupéry 11Bron 12
MadridBarajas 13Cuatro Vientos 9
MalmöSturup 24Lund 17
MelbourneMelbourne 22Moorabbin 22
MilanoMaipensa 40Linate 6
MunichMunich 28Oberschleissheim 8
OsloGardemoen 50Kjeller 20
ParisCharles de Gaulle 25Le Bourget 12
PerthPerth 10Jandakot 16
ReykjavikReykjavik 35Reykjavik City 1
RomeFiumicino 31Urbe 8
SydneyKingsford Smith 9Bankstown 21
TorontoPearson 20Billy Bishop 3
StockholmArlanda 37Bromma 7
WarsawOkecie 10Babice 10
VancouverVancouver 12Boundary Bay 16
ViennaVienna 16Stockerau 22
ZürichKloten 9Birrfeld 12

It is worthwhile to think how “Helsinki-Kiikala, 100 km” would look in place of Malmi on this list of European cities. This notion reveals the big problem with the proposed “replacement airfields” of Malmi: they do not replace Malmi on any level because they do not serve the aviation needs of the capital region.

In addition, it must be taken into account that by far the majority of all airports in Finland are less than 20 km away from a city and serve general aviation too. The million-people capital region ending up as the leading aviation backwater in the country and in Europe would be quite harmful to the aspirations of Helsinki to become a European metropolis.

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Question 5: Aren’t two airports that close to each other a safety risk?

Answer: The airspaces of Helsinki-Vantaa ja Helsinki-Malmi are completely separate. The airspace borders are very clear and tightly controlled. In this way the problems caused by fast heavy jets and slow small aircraft operating in the same lively airspace are avoided.

This system works and has worked splendidly for decades: Helsinki-Vantaa takes care of heavy fast traffic, and Malmi serves slow small aircraft completely separately. Flight safety is thus maintained in the best possible way. The airports in Vantaa and at Malmi can arguably be seen as a single metropolitan airport where the runways serving different kinds of traffic have been separated from each other.

If Malmi Airport were closed down, light air traffic at Helsinki-Vantaa would unavoidably increase because part of, e.g., chartered light traffic would land there due to the excessively long distance of the airfield “replacing” Malmi. Taking the long-term air traffic forecasts into account, if Helsinki-Vantaa were to remain the only airfield in the capital region, the smooth operation of air traffic would certainly be hampered.

Takaisin…


Question 6: Is Malmi Airport valuable as a cultural heritage site?

Answer: Malmi is one of the best-preserved pre-WWII international airport milieus in the world. The functionalist architecture of its buildings has won international acclaim. Since 1991, the Airport as a whole has been included in the list of nationally significant cultural environments (in Finnish) by the National Board of Antiquities (NBA) and the Ministry of the Environment. The Airport has also been twice selected on the global List of 100 Most Endangered Sites by World Monuments Fund (WMF). ICOMOS and ICCROM, advisers of UNESCO’s World Heritage Programme, are represented in its selection panel. In March 2016, the leading European cultural heritage organization Europa Nostra selected Malmi Airport as one of Europe’s Seven Most Endangered Cultural Heritage Sites.

According to the experts of the NBA, the WMF and Europa Nostra, the cultural-historical value of the Airport is strongly based on its continuing busy aviation use. The Airport with its runways has also been included in the selection of significant monuments of modern architecture by the international DoCoMoMo working group.

The function of the buildings as a part of an operational airport would be lost if the aviation activities were relocated and a suburb were built on the runways. The most significant historic aviation milieu in Finland and its cultural value would be destroyed, and only two buildings torn from their functional purpose would remain. As such, the remains of Malmi Airport would have no claim to be included in any international lists of valuable sites.

As a consequence of its numerous international recognitions and cultural-historical monument listings, Malmi Airport has become a significant case for Finland’s reputation as a nation of culture. As a Member State of UNESCO, Finland has in October 2003 signed the UNESCO Declaration Concerning Intentional Destruction of Cultural Heritage. This Declaration is a moral obligation to act in protection of cultural heritage against intentional destruction by, e.g., defining legal consequences on state and individual level.

President Kallio departing from Malmi to Stockholm to plead for western help for Finland in October 1939.

President Kallio departing from Malmi to Stockholm to plead for western help for Finland in October 1939.

Malmi Airport has been the stage of numerous important occasions in the history of independent Finland since the latter part of the 1930’s. From there, statesmen and ministers have departed to official visits and important negotiations in a time when the World War was falling on a small nation. The scheduled Ju-52 airliner “Kaleva” of Aero o/y was on its way to Malmi from Tallinn when it was shot down by the Soviet Air Force. The Allied Control Commission arrived at Malmi Airport after the armistice in September 1944. The coffin of Finland’s Marshal Mannerheim was brought to Malmi from Switzerland, and Miss Universe Armi Kuusela left to conquer the world from Malmi in 1952. These are just a small glimpse at all the significant events that have taken place at Malmi Airport. Guess where 19-year-old Cessna 172 pilot Mathias Rust took off on his world-famous flight to Moscow’s Red Square on 28 May 1987?

All the events that have taken place at Malmi over the decades form an invaluable, unbroken aviation tradition which is alive in a completely different way than just on the pages of history books.

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Yippeeee!

Yippeeee!

Question 7: Isn’t aviation an extreme sport suitable only for supermen and -women?

Answer: This notion, kept up by movies and TV entertainment, is simply not true. Small-aircraft aviation is not an extreme sport at all. It is extremely safe, and suitable for any person of normal health. Typical eye-glasses or overweight are no obstacle to obtaining a pilot’s license. Parachuting is more of an extreme sport, but it doesn’t require superhuman qualities either – if you have no fears about bungee jumping, parachuting will not pose a problem.

Takaisin…


Question 8: Shouldn’t Malmi Airport go because Helsinki needs building land for residential areas?

Answer: The present unrealized housing construction projects cover the requirements of the baseline scenario until 2050. The population forecast of Helsinki region 2014-2050 (City of Helsinki, Statistics 29/2013, tables on pages 41-42) predicts that the population of Helsinki will then be 750.000 people instead of 604.000. The population growth estimate is thus 146.000. Even in the fast growth scenario, selected as the basis of the new General Plan, this estimate will not become reality sooner than in 2031-2032.

By adding up the recently begun or soon-to-begin housing area projects’ planned numbers of residents (see Helsinki City Planning Department, situation in April 2014, a more complete list is on the Finnish page), the following result is obtained:

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This calculation does not include the complementary building reserve in Helsinki or the unfinished area projects for which the number of residents-to-be is not specified on the City Planning Department’s pages.

The latest development in increasing the building land reserve of Helsinki is the annexation of southwest Sipoo (Östersundom) to Helsinki in 2009. The planning area of Östersundom is 21 times as large as Malmi Airport and its safety zone. This was made possible by creating a common border between Helsinki and Sipoo by the annexation from City of Vantaa of the so-called Västerkulla Triangle, which is by itself the same size as Malmi Airport and its safety zone. The planning area of Östersundom has an area of 45 km2, of which the Natura 2000 sanctuaries and their buffer zones take up 9 km2 according to the latest information (2013). The remaining 36 km2 of usable land is equal to more than seventeen Malmi Airports and their safety zones.

Outside Helsinki city limits, in the other municipalities of the capital region, there is more than enough high-quality building land for planning to cover all future needs, if only cooperation in making use of them is achieved over the municipality borders on the map. A metropolitan administration over the borders and the consolidation of municipalities are constantly debated as urgently needed measures to make the building politics of the capital region more rational, and the State is vigorously promoting them. It is thus to be expected that in the near future, long before the year 2030, the ample building land reserve of the capital region becomes available to housing production in a rational manner.

Because of this, the hurried destruction of remaining diversity of cultural environments and landscapes inside the borders of Helsinki is perverse, especially in the case of Malmi Airport: in addition to Lappeenranta (200 km away), it is the only airport offering proper services to light aircraft in all of Southern Finland Province. The nearest airport of comparable quality is in Turku some 150 km away. Helsinki-Vantaa International Airport, focusing on heavy scheduled air traffic, only serves light aircraft in a very limited manner.

Thus the closing down of Malmi Airport to build an apartment house area for 20.000-30.000 people simply cannot be a matter of life and death for Helsinki. The choking of the operations of a functionally irreplaceable airport as a target for housing construction, going on for decades already, does not serve the general interests of society nor the building of a European metropolis.

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Question 9: Doesn’t Malmi Airport disturb the people living nearby?

A noise level modelling study published in August 2016 and depicting a realistic lively summer’s day at Malmi Airport shows that aircraft noise, according to noise regulations, presents no obstacle to even substantial residential construction in the surrounding area.

Answer: Every time a poll is made concerning this matter, the noise-protesters are left in a small minority. To an overwhelming majority of the local residents, the beautiful airport and its special historic and cultural character are a matter of pride. In addition, the Airport has operated continuously since the 1930’s, long before any of the suburbs now surrounding it were built. Thus it is difficult to imagine that the sounds of flying would have come as a surprise to those who moved into the vicinity.

Several local residents’ associations and other associations have voiced their support for preserving Malmi Airport in aviation use. The petition of the Friends of Malmi Airport Society to save Malmi Airport has been signed by thousands of people living nearby.

The opinion of all the people of Helsinki was made clear by Gallup Finland in October 2004. In this professional, unbiased opinion poll with an error margin of 3%, it was shown that 58% of the people of Helsinki (more than 320.000 people) is in favor of keeping Malmi Airport in aviation use. Only 22% of the people wanted the Airport to be used for residential purposes. Gallup Finland made a similar study in December 2005 for the whole capital region (Helsinki, Espoo and Vantaa), and the preservation of the Airport got a 65% support (equal to more than 630.000 capital region residents). According to the recent study by TNS Gallup  (August 2014), at least 2/3 of the people in the cities of the capital region as well as elsewhere in Uusimaa province want to keep Malmi Airport in aviation use if the needs of housing production can be met in other ways. The same result was obtained when TNS Gallup repeated the study in March 2017: the biggest group of voters of each party was found to support keeping Malmi Airport in aviation use without conditions.

Recent information about the alleged disturbance caused by Malmi Airport can also be found in the City of Helsinki Environment Centre’s questionnaire study, published in 2010 (in Finnish, summary in English on page 4), where 2100 randomly selected residents described the quiet places that they find important in the capital. Malmi Airport emerged as a place whose almost perfect tranquility in the evenings, at night and in winter is perceived as worth mentioning.

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Question 10: Are there any natural values requiring protection at Malmi Airport?

Malmi Airport is one of the most significant Finnish migration stopover sites of the critically endangered and specifically protected great snipe. Photo: Petri Asikainen (18 September 2016)

Malmi Airport is one of the most significant Finnish migration stopover sites of the critically endangered and specifically protected great snipe. Photo: Petri Asikainen (18 September 2016)

Answer: Malmi Airport is one of the most significant bird paradises in Helsinki. Several species mentioned in Appendix 1 of the European Union’s Bird Directive and included in the international IUCN Red List of Threatened Species are observed at the Airport, e.g. the critically endangered great snipe (Gallinago media). Some of these species nest there regularly, e.g. the curlew (Numenius arquata), the corncrake (Crex crex), the whinchat (Saxicola rubetra), the common whitethroat (Sylvia communis) and the red-backed shrike (Lanius collurio). The deciduous woods around the airport are also a valuable biotope where e.g. the endangered white-backed woodpecker (Dendrocopos leucotos) has been observed. The latest observation, made in the local winter bird count as part of the national birdlife follow-up study, is from 6 January 2017.

The Airport also has a plentiful population of bats, moles and other small mammals, foxes and brown hares, as well as a rich ecosystem of insects and plants.

In a preliminary bat survey in summer 2015, several species of bats were observed, e.g. the northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii), Nathusius’ pipistrelle (Pipistrellus nathusii) and the parti-coloured bat (Vespertilio murinus), to which the weakly lit meadow of the airport offers excellent hunting grounds. All bats of Finland are on the EU’s Habitats Directive’s Annex IV(a) list of species in need of strict protection, and according to the Finnish Law of Nature Conservation, it is forbidden to weaken or destroy their breeding and resting grounds.

In a preliminary butterfly and moth survey in summer 2015, in spite of the second poor summer in a row, 539 species were observed on Malmi Airport. Among them were the endangered burren green (Calamia tridens), two vulnerable species and ten near-threatened species.

Uninterrupted aviation activity since the 1930’s has not disturbed the natural values of Malmi Airport. The Finnish Association for Nature Conservation has in several statements opposed the relocation of Malmi’s aviation operations. The same view has been presented by the local MaTaPuPu Birding Society.

Longinoja brook, successfully restored as a breeding brook of the critically endangered sea trout (Salmo trutta trutta) is the only drain for the waters originating from the airport’s catchment area. The extensive stabilization and piling work before residential building can commence would release massive amounts of muddy clay, which would end up in Longinoja and drain into Vantaa river, which is home to Europe’s largest population of the threatened thick-shelled river mussel (Unio crassus), included in the EU’s Habitats Directive’s Annex IV(a) list of species in need of strict protection.

The meadow biotope of Malmi Airport is nowadays a rare and diverse nature paradise that is of great importance to the people living in northeastern Helsinki. Photo: Petri Asikainen (18 September 2016)

The meadow biotope of Malmi Airport is nowadays a rare and diverse nature paradise that is of great importance as a landscape to the people living in northeastern Helsinki. Photo: Petri Asikainen (18 September 2016)

The nature path encircling the Airport is hugely popular among the local residents because Malmi Airport is the last remaining open green area in their home district. More information about the nature values of Malmi Airport can be found on the pages of MaTaPuPu Birding Society (in Finnish).

The natural diversity of the Airport and its surroundings cannot be expected to survive the pressure created first by a huge construction site and then by tens of thousands of new residents.

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Question 11: Isn’t Malmi Airport a dead place where nothing ever happens?

Answer: When measured by take-offs and landings, Malmi Airport is by far the second liveliest airport in Finland after Helsinki-Vantaa International Airport. This can be confirmed from the Annual Report of Finavia 2013 (page 103).

Malmi Airport serves the general aviation needs of the whole capital region and is for almost a million people the only place where versatile aviation activities are available at reasonable cost and trouble (and using local public transportation). The Airport also frequently serves as a venue of public events not related to aviation, e.g. concerts and motor sports events.

Takaisin…


Question 12: The traffic at Malmi Airport has diminished by half since 1990, so is there demand for it anymore?

Answer: By looking at the number of landings at Malmi Airport from 1980 onwards it is easy to see that the huge traffic in the reference year 1990 is a consequence of the anomalously overheated economy of that time, and the downhill afterwards reflects the great economic depression of the 1990’s. The basic traffic at Malmi Airport has been stable over a long period of time – and it is by far the busiest in Finland after Helsinki-Vantaa International Airport.

Malmi_landings_1980-2015

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Question 13: Aren’t the old aircraft of Malmi Airport a safety hazard to the people living nearby?

Answer: All aircraft must meet extremely tight maintenance requirements that are rigorously enforced. Safety is the leading principle in all aviation. Every small aircraft must be inspected annually and undergoes meticulously defined maintenance procedures at specified time intervals (e.g., 50 hours, 100 hours, 200 hours). Without these overhauls, the aircraft is grounded.

This is why the aircraft are technically extremely reliable regardless of their age and looks. Just in case, the Airport is surrounded by open safety zones where the aircraft can land in an unlikely forced landing situation. Throughout the almost 80-year-long history of Malmi Airport, no bystanders near the Airport have been injured or killed by an aircraft.

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Question 14: Isn’t a new residential area on Malmi Airport crucial to the future and the services of the region?

Answer: Malmi Airport is no threat to the services in the region. The business center of Malmi has a solid, large and faithful customer base which has no interest in regular shopping at other similar centers further away.

As to the future of the region, much greater prospects are offered by the sole general aviation airport in the metropolitan area – an international channel of light air traffic which at the same time is a recognized world-class cultural rarity.

Taking the long-term air traffic forecasts into account, giving up such a regional advantage and potential business magnet just to cram one more suburb into a densely populated area would be senseless. It is worthwhile to note that the Northeast Helsinki Entrepreneurs’ Association is a member organization of the Friends of Malmi Airport Society.

In the light of all the international recognition, Malmi Airport has all the makings of a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Complemented by a high-quality aviation museum the Airport can be developed into a world-class attraction for cultural tourism, bringing considerable income and international appreciation to the region.

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Question 15: Isn’t Malmi Airport maintained with large sums of taxpayers’ money?

Answer: The maintenance of the airport system in Finland is paid for by the users of the airports, not by the taxpayers. Finavia is a government-owned enterprise which finances the upkeep of the aviation infrastructure from its revenues. Finavia has chosen to keep Malmi Airport operational even at a net loss. This is an indication of the value of Malmi Airport as an education and recruiting center as perceived by the foremost expert organization in the field of aviation.

According to available information, the net costs of Malmi Airport have been of the order of 1 million euro annually. The major part of this sum has consisted of air traffic control expenses, which in a unique arrangement have been payed by Finavia’s Helsinki-Malmi unit to its Helsinki-Vantaa unit. This transferring of money inside Finavia hasn’t had a visible effect on the winnings of Helsinki-Vantaa, but has made a big dent in Helsinki-Malmi’s result. This sum has been collected from the passengers using Finavia’s airports and comes to about 10-20 eurocents per flight ticket. On the other hand, the professional pilot education infrastructure elsewhere in Finland is supported with tax money from the Ministry of Education and Culture by several million euro per year. In spite of this, it is Malmi that has been educating 2/3 of all professional pilots in Finland. Thus, from the point of view of the taxpayers, Malmi Airport has been by far the most efficient pilot training center in the country.

It is said that the City of Helsinki loses land rent and tax income because of Malmi Airport. This argument, however, is never presented when talking about Helsinki’s large unbuilt land areas, suitable for housing, which the City could afford to leave completely outside the City Plan 2002 and which have not been ceded to any other purpose either. Because of this, the claims of the City’s loss of income are not convincing in the least.

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Question 16: Can the operations of Malmi Airport be developed at the present location?

Answer: In the United States, the aviation authorities have already in 2006 warned U.S. cities against closing down their small regional airports. The revolution which is in progress in the field of business aircraft will in the near future make such airports important regional assets.

In a couple of decades, every runway in the capital region will be indispensable. According to the commercial aviation growth estimates of EUROCONTROL, the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation, air traffic in Finland and neighboring countries will grow by 30-70% from the 2012 level by 2035, and by a factor of 2 or 3 by 2050. The sufficiency of aviation infrastructure and its capacity are a strategic worry of the EU. If the forecasts become reality, the smooth and flexible operation of business flights at Helsinki-Vantaa International Airport would be in jeopardy; the non-scheduled business flights can get flexible service only when the regular scheduled air traffic situation allows it.

Eurooppalainen GPS:ää tarkeThe European GPS-augmenting EGNOS system is already operational as an open service. With EGNOS, a positional accuracy equal to or better than ILS category I, a prerequisite for commercial flight operations, can be achieved without any expensive installations of equipment on the airport. EGNOS is fully compatible with the American WAAS, which has for several years been in aviation use in the United States. The safety-of-life level EGNOS service was announced operational in March 2011, and its successor Galileo (operational in 2016) and its augmenting services will take the positional accuracy of navigation to the level that makes automated landings possible. The traditional ILS, stemming from the 1940's, is coming to the end of its service life.

The European GPS-augmenting EGNOS system is already operational as an open service. With EGNOS, a positional accuracy equal to or better than ILS category I, a prerequisite for commercial flight operations, can be achieved without any expensive installations of equipment on the airport. EGNOS is fully compatible with the American WAAS, which has for several years been in aviation use in the United States. The safety-of-life level EGNOS service was announced operational in March 2011, and its successor Galileo (operational in 2016) and its augmenting services will take the positional accuracy of navigation to the level that makes automated landings possible. The traditional ILS, stemming from the 1940’s, is coming to the end of its service life.

The new generation of small 4-8 seat microjets (VLJ, Very Light Jet) cause less noise than the traditional propeller aircraft at Malmi Airport. They are in practice as fast as traditional business jets, considerably less expensive to buy and to maintain, and they can operate without difficulty from just 1-km-long runways. They are taking the business aviation market by storm everywhere in the world, and some have already been ordered to Finland too. As this new generation of business aircraft takes over, the present runways at Malmi Airport will be fully adequate to ensure the flexible business flight services of the capital region.

The flexibility of business flight services will also be lost if the airport serving them is located e.g. at the distance of Porvoo from the capital region. Potentates of international business and politics, arriving on a 1-hour flight from Stockholm, St. Petersburg, the Baltic countries or other nearby airfields, will not spend more than an hour on the road in the morning rush hour traffic towards Helsinki, and back to the airport in the evening. Malmi Airport is located in an excellent place just 15 minutes away from the city centers of the capital region and from Helsinki-Vantaa International Airport, and it also makes the dozens of small airfields around Finland easily accessible.

It is quite possible to devise an instrument landing method on Malmi’s present runways. Modern GPS-based augmented methods make instrument approaches possible with far more flexibility than the traditional methods. By redesigning the methods of Helsinki-Vantaa and Malmi to work together, the closeness of the two airports will not cause problems for their smooth operation. In the metropolises of the world, small airfields operate even closer to big ones than in Helsinki: a good example of this are Charles de Gaulle, the huge heavy-traffic airport of Paris, and Le Bourget, the busiest business and general aviation airport in Europe, situated just 3 km away from each other with intersecting runway directions.

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Question 17: Won’t the services of Helsinki-Vantaa International Airport suffice for the capital region even in the future?

Answer: Helsinki-Vantaa International Airport has by long-term effort achieved the status of international hub airport. The competition for this status between metropoles is merciless, because it brings a significant boost to their economic life and competitive edge.

The “Connect Sweden” project, initiated in 2013, aims to make Stockholm’s Arlanda Airport the leading airport in the Nordic countries. Bromma City Airport in the middle of Stockholm is considered crucial to the success of this undertaking and the smooth handling of the strongly increasing air traffic. In St. Petersburg, billions of euro have been invested in Pulkovo Airport in recent years.

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In addition to its present roles, Malmi Airport is ideally suited for light business traffic.

Helsinki-Vantaa is the only coordinated airport in Finland. This means that flying to/from there with a free schedule is not possible. Even today, a time slot to use Helsinki-Vantaa’s runways must be applied for three hours in advance. This limits the free movement of unscheduled business flights in the region: e.g., a business traveller who needs to catch a Finnair flight to a Far East destination in a hurry cannot get to Helsinki from Stockholm, St. Petersburg or the Baltics within one hour except by landing at Malmi Airport, because time slots are not required there.

Large investments are underway at Helsinki-Vantaa Airport, but they will not remove the time slot system of a busy international airport specializing in scheduled air route traffic. When the traffic grows by a factor of 2 or 3 by the year 2050, it remains to be seen how long in advance time slots must be applied for then. In any case, flexible services to business flights will in the future be a crucial part of the competitive edge of the capital region, which is the locomotive of Finland’s economic life.

If Malmi Airport did not exist, the nearest comparable services for business flights would be in Turku about 150 km away. This would weaken the accessibility of Helsinki and its standing in the competition between metropoles.

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Question 18: Does Malmi Airport have any value as a backup airport or for maintenance and supply security?

virkamieslakko 1986

During the civil service strike of 1986, Malmi Airport made air traffic to the capital possible. Photo: Ari Aho

Answer: Malmi Airport is the only backup airport of the capital region. If Helsinki-Vantaa has to be closed for any reason, passenger and cargo air traffic has no other way to/from the capital than Malmi Airport. This happened the last time in 1986 during a weeks-long civil service strike, when domestic air traffic was smoothly taken care of with lighter aircraft via Malmi Airport. When dictated by weather conditions, Malmi also acts as a backup airport for e.g. Helsinki-Vantaa’s lighter traffic and Hernesaari Heliport.

Spirit of Malmi Airport 2010

The ambassador of Denmark Jens-Otto Horslund (at left) ceremoniously gave Bel Air’s AgustaWestland helicopter the name “Spirit of Malmi Airport” on 29 October 2010. Bel Air’s manager and pilot Susanne H. Lastein revealed the name with airport manager Ari Sireeni, briefing manager Päivi Hokkanen and Stella Group’s chairman of the board Kari Juvas following the proceedings. Photo: Ilkka Mäkelä

The latest commercial route traffic from Malmi Airport was flown in 2010-2011, when the Danish company Bel Air flew regular passenger helicopter flights to and from the pipeline-laying vessel Solitaire operating on the Baltic Sea. This regular commercial traffic would undoubtedly have been flown from Helsinki-Vantaa if it had fitted the major airport’s concept better.

It is thus incomprehensible that as part of the surveys made for City of Helsinki’s new General Plan, a location for a necessary heliport was searched in 2014 without success right next to Malmi Airport in Kivikko, even though the city airport at Malmi has supported the capital’s air traffic for decades offering complete international services.

Preserving Malmi Airport is supported also by considerations of maintenance and support security in times of crisis. For instance, Stockholm in Sweden has several airfields within 30 km of the city centre. Especially for the needs of the authorities it is necessary to have a place in the capital allowing air traffic even if the main airport at Helsinki-Vantaa or the roads leading there are unusable due to accidents, catastrophies, war, or strike.

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Question 19: Can inexpensive housing be built at Malmi Airport?

maanpinnan_taso_1938

Malmi’s terminal is built on solid foundations, but the apron floats freely. Ground level in 1938…

maanpinnan_taso_2002

… and in 2002. The location of the roof pillars with regard to ground level is enlightening.

Answer: The deep and watery clay soil of Malmi is extremely poor land for building. It would be necessary to drive piles under every building to a depth reaching 25 meters (82 feet), but even that wouldn’t be enough: in addition, piles would be needed under roads, yards, parking lots and everything else to avoid the fate of the Fallkulla block of apartment houses at the northwestern edge of the airport, built on the same clay soil in 2005.

The Fallkulla housing area is just 10 years old, and its current state is unambiguously depicted in the photos taken there and in the open letter published in Facebook by Anita Olli, a resident of Fallkulla (translated from Finnish):

Today we got more bad news:

In our apartment block, it has been impossible to close the outer door for a few weeks in spite of repairs. Today the occupants, including myself, have had trouble getting out of the building because the door wouldn’t open. The maintenance man said that the door is so warped that it mustn’t be closed again, because then there’s no exit from the building.

Our yard is full of damaged asphalt riddled with potholes which people hit with their cars. The inner walls of the building has innumerable cracks. Our apartment block has stood on this spot for 11 years and six months and is sagging already, probably because of the ground under it.

Dear decision-makers of City of Helsinki:

PEOPLE, PLEASE THINK BEFORE YOU START TEARING DOWN MALMI AIRPORT AND BUILDING THERE!! PLEASE GO AND SEE THE DAMAGES TO THE APARTMENTS IN FALLKULLA AND ONLY AFTER THAT CONSIDER IF IT IS WORTHWHILE TO INITIATE A BILLION-EURO CATASTROPHY!!

The local newspaper Koillis-Helsingin Lähisanomat has also published a revealing photo and article (in Finnish) about the reality of Fallkulla’s “pilot project” on 5 August 2015.

In practice the only way to properly stabilize the ground at Malmi Airport would be to cover the area with a lid on piles, as has been done at the beginning of nearby Lahti freeway. The area of Malmi Airport, however, would require a lid covering more than 120 hectares (300 acres), and the cost of proper stabilization would be astronomical. In addition, due to its several groundwater layers, the clay soil is so sloppy that it does not offer lateral support to the piles. Inexpensive residences on the clay ground of Malmi Airport is a housing-political pipe dream which upon realization will turn into the residents’ nightmare soon after the constructor’s warranty expires.

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Question 20: Isn’t there a ready-made infrastructure for housing at Malmi Airport?

Answer: The fact that there already is electricity, waterlines and sewers in the suburbs around Malmi Airport does not mean that the “infrastructure is ready”. Even the asphalt-paved runways are not usable for road traffic due to their weight-carrying limits.

The networks cannot simply be extended from the edges of the area to provide for the needs for thousands of apartments. Completely new feeders, trunk lines, transformer stations, pumping stations etc. must be built. In all likelihood it will also be necessary to change the trunk networks because of the planned massive housing development for tens of thousands of residents.

Due to the weak soil of Malmi Airport, all networks must be built on piles. Every water pipe and sewer must be supported by piles, because otherwise the constant shifting of the ground will break them. The same goes for Malmi’s present runways: their weight limits do not allow constant use by thousands of cars. They must all be torn up and rebuilt on proper foundations.

The necessary infrastructure can be built elsewhere at the same (or cheaper) cost.

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